AIRLINE TEAMS

a) A CBT Quiz done annually together with the SEP and Safety Quiz will enhance the knowledge base of the pilots. As long as important key points are embedded in the memory, the first step is achieved. This CBT may include scenarios that may aid experiential learning. This can be fine tuned to achieve operational benefits.
b) Pre course reading Material based on initial CRM course Key points can be sent to participants prior to Recurrent CRM classes so that this can be reviewed during the introduction module (this is done in SEP just before the test), participants can then review it before the CBT which will occur sometime at a later date (during SEP). This serves as a run thru and that participants are well versed for the upcoming Quiz.
c) CRM facilitators must ensure that they review, with the participants, at the end of each module (Consolidation of learning outcomes) the relevant key points and not just brush thru the slide. This serves as an evaluation that they have understood the contents and then feedback to the Mgr HF & CRM that this is done (in a form by completion signature). This includes recurrent CRM.

CRM PROGRAMMES’ RELEVANCY

This proposal looks to improving airline CRM programmes’ Relevancy and Effectiveness. In doing so, a look at various regulatory requirements and suggestions have been incorporated. The proposal for the effectiveness of the programmes uses Kirkpatrick’s Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model, (explained in the previous document) which has been used in many fields of developments such as Medical and Research. It follows a structure of importance to the methods of gauging effectiveness. The proposals are divided into 2 sections and the 4 categories in each are Classroom, Simulator, Line operations and Personal Interaction.

RELEVANCY

  • a) CRM Recurrent training should include a revision of CRM principles covered in the initial course using practical line oriented examples.
  • b) CRM Recurrent training should focus on current Industry trends tailored to airline needs analysis. In the present climate with various occurrences, Flight deck discipline (Airmanship), Pilot Monitoring, Assertiveness and Situational Awareness have been highlighted as being deficient. A second or part B recurrent containing Communication skills and assertiveness training as well as receptiveness training MUST be included. This is a much specialised training in that it delves into the psyche of the pilot and the facilitators must be well trained to impart the key objectives. We have implemented the support process, but, the majority of the pilots not understanding the concept (as indicated by them in the classroom). This Part B recurrent ideally should move away from the name CRM so that the perception of the pilot body is not of ‘just another CRM course’. If included, self discipline (Airmanship), it comes to a full circle in looking at oneself, which is something that the Shell Model (Edwards, Hawking 1988) starts off with, but never really emphasised. With the latest occurrences this helps address the relevant deficiencies which must be later reinforced in the Simulator LOFT and constantly evaluated for effectiveness.
  • c) Training applications of Psychology based disciplines like Directive Communication assist in reinforcing the implementation of CRM concepts and understanding the personal psychological barriers to execution.
  • d) Indoctrination of Team Oriented CRM must start with Cadet Pilots.
  • a) CRM LOA scenarios are re-instituted with the sole purpose of enhancing CRM. Granted that every alternate recurrent is a LOFT scenario which was originally meant as CRM LOFT’s but at present they are filled with many exercises leaving little time for CRM intended session but more of a technical enhancement and skills session.
  • b) Base Check “common mistakes” (as in the FIG) should be highlighted to the crew so that it enhances their proficiency and more time can be used on enhancing CRM skills.
  • c) Develop & Issue “Common CRM Mistakes” as a guideline for pilot development in CRM concepts.
  • d) Why don’t pilots like to go-around? Much has been written about this. A specialised go-around training (or even an end to an LOA) given minimum fuel, subtle incapacitation, bad weather on the missed approach path, partially visual field, kept high by ATC, traffic in the vicinity and being number 10 after a missed approach, complicated Missed approach procedure (a couple of each together), will help pilots feel more comfortable with the decision to Go Around. These have been sighted in various articles.
  • a) Line Checks be Teamwork Oriented.
  • b) Develop & Issue of “Common CRM Mistakes” as a guide line for pilot development in CRM concepts
  • a) NTC be conducted in a manner that is not a tick in the box.
  • b) CRM brief course was conducted during the NTC workshop for Instructors but was not infused with the Matrix and hence little was the impact of the CRM refresher or how it shows CRM Markers.
  • c) Understanding and use of the NTC Matrix be communicated to the pilot body by means of Workshops.
  • d) CODEP Mentors to be familiar and in sync with how NTC is to be used and it is to be explained to the Mentees.
  • e) CODEP Mentors should be trained in CRM concepts so that this can be communicated to the Mentees.

EFFECTIVENESS

The Effectiveness of CRM programmes depends on the assessment of the said markers. First a look at how much each level can be assessed:
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The Classroom ends with a feedback form; which serves for validation of the course contents, facilitator competencies, in other words a ‘happy sheet’ but if annual quizzes are used and knowledge is gained, there will/ might be some transference of skills pertaining to one’s behaviour in the workplace. While the Classroom may only provide a lower level of effectiveness (level 1 to 3), it provides a basic foundation for the rest.
The rest of the 3 categories do not contain feedback forms nor will it have CRM Quizzes but the overall achievements in behaviour and benefits to the organization are tremendous.
In looking at the 4 Categories:

  • a) A CBT Quiz done annually together with the SEP and Safety Quiz will enhance the knowledge base of the pilots. As long as important key points are embedded in the memory, the first step is achieved. This CBT may include scenarios that may aid experiential learning. This can be fine tuned to achieve operational benefits.
  • b) Pre course reading Material based on initial CRM course Key points can be sent to participants prior to Recurrent CRM classes so that this can be reviewed during the introduction module (this is done in SEP just before the test), participants can then review it before the CBT which will occur sometime at a later date (during SEP). This serves as a run thru and that participants are well versed for the upcoming Quiz.
  • c) CRM facilitators must ensure that they review, with the participants, at the end of each module (Consolidation of learning outcomes) the relevant key points and not just brush thru the slide. This serves as an evaluation that they have understood the contents and then feedback to the Mgr HF & CRM that this is done (in a form by completion signature). This includes recurrent CRM.
  • a) LOA sessions be videotaped and given to participants to review. Ideally this should be facilitated by trained CRM personnel.
  • b) IP’s should go thru a CRM training course as outlined by CAA & CAAS so that they are trained to look out for or train relevant CRM markers and key points as below:
    • SA it is the ability to Perceive, Understand, and Project and above all, manages the risk.
    • Communication it is the ability to clearly Advocate, Inquire, and Assert and above all listen.
    • Decision Making, it is the gathering, planning, evaluation, execution and re-evaluation.
    • Using the Support process and it does not mean to its eventuality. It must be used at all times and 95% of the time to the Guidance phase. (It happens now but nobody realises it!)
    • Automation golden rules Fly, Navigate, Communicate
    one head up at all times, Cross-check the accuracy of the FMS, Know your FMA at all times, etc….
  • c) Assessment of the LOA should be focused on team based and grading may include numerical scores but rather focusing the deficiencies on methods to improvement. This would work extremely well if the base check was only graded as pass/ fail. The candidates would then concentrate on enhancing their CRM skills. The base check at present caters for a 5 or 6 for a pass and 4 and below for a fail with anything more than 7 as part of CRM skills. A blanket, pass or fail without scores and only graded CRM would have greater benefits :
    • Participants mindset would be to improve CRM in their own ways,
    • Less emphasis on flying by numbers,
    • Ability to concentrate on wider issues and crew co-operation.
  • d) Airlines like, Emirates have instituted a 2 day base check format. The B/C is done on the 1st Day and LOA on the 2nd, both are graded.
  • a) All Line instructors should go thru a CRM training course as outlined in 2b & for LiP’s, 2c above.
  • b) De-briefing should be conducted with specific CRM in mind and using NTC markers on each flight for a refresher or one separately developed so that items to be talked about can use the CRM dimensions of Leadership, D.M, Communication Skills, and Interpersonal Skills etc.
  • c) Line check forms can have specific NTC like additional markers with comments areas so that a CRM Expert (post flight) may allocate additional points if warranted to that particular area of grading.
  • d) An ideal situation would be a team based CRM grading (1 to 10) with line checks just being a pass/fail.
  • e) Implementation of a Fleet mini LOSA can determine the areas of weakness so that corrective measures can be taken to improve CRM deficiencies. Monitoring and cross checking were a fail point for the past 2 LOSA’s and unless proactive measures are taken, we will see the same on the next one! (Assumption on my part!).
  • f) Training of more LOSA observers will also enhance the ability to conduct more observations as well as enhance the pilot body. If we get to a stage where 1/3 of the pilot body are trained observers, they may invariably help educate/ impart CRM behaviour/markers.
  • g) After every Incident, an Interview with the Mgr HF & CRM should be conducted, so that CRM issues and contributions can be measured, valued and brought to notice.
  • h) Hazard Reports should be reviewed by HF & CRM experts to look specifically at CRM related issues so that this can be segregated and valued.
  • a) Once the Instructors are CRM trained NTC & CCQA’s can be conducted in a manner that enhances the CRM Marker aspect.

CONCLUSION:

In seeking the value of effectiveness, empirical values are often attached. Having Feedback forms or ‘Happy Sheets’ to the end of each category and exercise only serves to provide validation for the way the item/course/exercise is being conducted. The first step in human effectiveness is the attainment of knowledge and the retention of which is by constant testing, learning, usage and application. The real test of Effectiveness is by the practical use of knowledge and its application. This is seen in the Aviation industry by a reduction of Accidents, Incidences and Occurrences.
The above assessments of CRM Markers and skills seek to first give knowledge retention then the practical usages. I will attempt to look at the practicalities of the implementation of these points in the next document.

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